Liaoning

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Liaoning Province
辽宁省
Province
Name transcription(s)
 â€¢ Chinese 辽宁省 (Liáoníng ShÄ›ng)
 â€¢ Abbreviation è¾½ (pinyin: Liáo)
Map showing the location of Liaoning Province
Map showing the location of Liaoning Province
Coordinates: 41°06′N 122°18′E / 41.1°N 122.3°E / 41.1; 122.3Coordinates: 41°06′N 122°18′E / 41.1°N 122.3°E / 41.1; 122.3
Named for The Liao River
Capital
(and largest city)
Shenyang
Divisions 14 prefectures, 100 counties, 1511 townships
Government
 â€¢ Secretary Wang Min
 â€¢ Governor Chen Zhenggao
Area[1]
 â€¢ Total 145,900 km2 (56,300 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
Population (2012)[2]
 â€¢ Total 43,900,000
 â€¢ Rank 14th
 â€¢ Density 300/km2 (780/sq mi)
 â€¢ Density rank 15th
Demographics
 â€¢ Ethnic composition Han - 84%
Manchu - 13%
Mongol - 2%
Hui - 0.6%
Korean - 0.6%
Xibe - 0.3%
 â€¢ Languages and dialects Northeastern Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Beijing Mandarin, Pyongan Korean, Manchu
ISO 3166 code CN-21
GDP (2012) CNY 2.707 trillion
US$ 441.60 billion (7th)
 - per capita CNY 61,663
US$ 10,059 (7th)
HDI (2008) 0.835 (high) (7th)
Website www.ln.gov.cn
Liaoning
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 辽宁省
Traditional Chinese 遼寧省
Postal Map Liaoning Province
Literal meaning Pacified Liao Province
Peaceful Province of the Liao
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠯᡳᠶᠣᠣ ᠨᡳᠩ
Liyoo-ning
Fengtian
Chinese name
Chinese 奉天省
Postal Map Fengtien Province
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠩᡤᠠ
Abkai-imiyangga

Liaoning is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. It was also known as Mukden province at the time, for the Manchu pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945 and again in 1954.

Liaoning is the southernmost part of Manchuria, the Chinese Northeast. It is also known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle"[3] from its shape and strategic location, with the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay and Bohai Sea) in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast, Hebei to the southwest, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The Yalu River marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in Korea.

Name[edit]

The characters forming the province's modern Chinese name are 辽(Liáo) and 宁(níng). They are the simplified forms of the traditional characters 遼 and 寧, respectively. The first character literally means "far", "distant"[4] but is actually a reference to the Liao River which flows through the territory.[5] The second literally means "peace", "calm"[5] but in such Chinese place names actually has the sense of "pacified", "made peaceful",[6] here in reference to the turbulent situation of Manchuria in the late 1920s. In both English and Chinese, however, it is most common to gloss the name as the more literal "Peace on the Liao",[7] the "Forever-Peaceful Liao,[8] or even "Distant Peace".[9]

The province's one-character abbreviation in Chinese is è¾½.

History[edit]

Liaoning is located in the southern part of Northeast China. The governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, Balhae, the Chinese as the Yan state, Han Dynasty, and the nomadic states as Xiongnu, Donghu, Xianbei, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan ruled Liaoning.[10][11]

The Ming Liaodong Wall (in purple)

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of the province from a potential threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries). In 1467-1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.[12]

The late-Ming Liaodong separated by the wall from the "Kingdom of the Jurchen" (Reino di Niuche). The map was created during the early Qing, and mentions that "presently" the Jurchen (Tartari del Kin) have already conquered the rest of China

Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Ming Liaodong was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616-1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (near today's Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun City).[13] It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning),[14][15] and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.

The Qing conquest of Liaodong resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.[16]

Liaodong (Leao-Tong) in the early Qing, surrounded by the Willow Palisade. This map, published in 1734, was based on data collected by Jesuits in the early 18th century. The capital is in Shenyang (Chinyang); most other cities mentioned in Governor Zhang's report are shown as well.

In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning).[17] Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (ca. 1638 - ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.[18]

Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence - or, failing that, to legalize them. E.g. an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them to either properly register and to join a local defense group (保, bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next 10 years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants...[19] In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734.[19]

During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.

In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang. The province first received its present name on January 29, 1929; the Zhongdong Railway Incident took place later that year.[20] In 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.

Dalian aquarium.

At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.

Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.

Politics[edit]

The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (Chinese: 辽宁省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Liaoning Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (Chinese: 辽宁省委书记), colloquially termed the "Liaoning CCP Party Chief".

Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, Chinese: 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).

Geography[edit]

Landsat 7 image of western Liaoning.

It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.

The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills.

The central part of Liaoning consists of the watersheds of rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and at low altitudes.

The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.

Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.

Major cities:

Administrative divisions[edit]

Liaoning is composed of twelve prefecture-level cities and two sub-provincial cities:

Map # Name Administrative Seat Hanzi
Hanyu Pinyin
Population (2010)
Liaoning prfc map.png
— Sub-provincial city —
1 Shenyang Shenhe District 沈阳市
Shěnyáng Shì
8,106,171
2 Dalian Xigang District 大连市
Dàlián Shì
6,690,432
— Prefecture-level city —
3 Anshan Tiedong District 鞍山市
Ānshān Shì
3,645,884
4 Benxi Pingshan District 本溪市
Běnxī Shì
1,709,538
5 Chaoyang Shuangta District 朝阳市
Cháoyáng Shì
3,044,641
6 Dandong Zhenxing District 丹东市
Dāndōng Shì
2,444,697
7 Fushun Shuncheng District 抚顺市
Fǔshùn Shì
2,138,090
8 Fuxin Haizhou District 阜新市
Fùxīn Shì
1,819,339
9 Huludao Longgang District 葫芦岛市
Húludǎo Shì
2,623,541
10 Jinzhou Taihe District 锦州市
Jǐnzhōu Shì
3,126,463
11 Liaoyang Baita District 辽阳市
Liáoyáng Shì
1,858,768
12 Panjin Xinglongtai District 盘锦市
Pánjǐn Shì
1,392,493
13 Tieling Yinzhou District 铁岭市
Tiělǐng Shì
2,717,732
14 Yingkou Zhanqian District 营口市
Yíngkǒu shì
2,428,534

These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts).

Economy[edit]

Liaoning has the largest economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.20 trillion yuan (ca. US$348 billion) making it the 7th largest in China (out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 41,782 yuan (US$6,172). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.

In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth.

Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery.[21] On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.

Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.

In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.

Agriculture[edit]

Main agricultural products of Liaoning include maize, sorghum, and soybeans. The region around Dalian produces three-quarters of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton is also produced.

Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.

Mining[edit]

Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.

Oil[edit]

Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe Oilfield.[21]

Industry[edit]

Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.

The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.

Trade[edit]

The cities of Dalian, Dandong and Yingkou have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China.

Economic and technological development zones[edit]

Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special Development Zones.[22]

  • Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone

In October 1995, Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established in Hi-Tech Industrial Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). It welcomes all the investors from the world, especially Taiwan to invest in the zone. Investors can enjoy many preferential policies. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmacy, electronics, new materials. It is an important part of Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.[23]

  • Liaoning Shenyang Export Processing Zone

Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in National-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 (24 sq mi) and current area of 14.1 km2 (5.4 sq mi). It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials and fine chemical industry.[24]

  • Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national hi-tech development zone approved by State Council. The zone is located in the west of Shenyang City with an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving and environmental protection.[25]

  • Anshan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone

Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of import and export trade is 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of the whole Liaoning Province's. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and USA, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba and Intel.[26]

  • Dalian Export Processing Zone

Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi). It is divided into two parts, A zone and B zone. A zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure are available, which include road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication and so on. In A zone, it encourages several leading industries, such as home appliances, light industry, machinery, construction materials, medicine instruments.[27]

Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by government in May, 1992. Investors can enjoys preferential policies, including duty-free. Inside the zone, all the infrastructures are available. The trade zone enjoys strategic location and convenient traffic. It has formed some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery and plastics.[28]

  • Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometres (13.7 sq mi). Inside the zone, all the infrastructure are available. It focuses and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmacy, and new materials.[29]

  • Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone

Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite the Sinuiju, a Korean city. It has completed the infrastructure. It has formed and encourages the following industries which is electronic information, machinery manufacturing, bio-pharmaceuticals.[30]

  • Yingkou Economic & Technical Development Zone

Regional development strategies[edit]

Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)[edit]

The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis centering at Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km (93 mi) radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million).

In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as interventions towards more market-oriented development.[31]

Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt[edit]

The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.

The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.

The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi).

The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.

Demographics[edit]

The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Koreans and Xibe.

Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese 35,105,991 83.94%
Manchu 5,385,287 12.88%
Mongol 669,972 1.60%
Hui 264,407 0.632%
Koreans 241,052 0.576%
Xibe 132,615 0.317%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

Culture[edit]

Liaoning's culture is the southern part of the culture of Northeast China. See Manchuria#Culture for a detailed description.

In paleontology, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period; e.g., the early 'placental' mammal known as Eomaia. The first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning and unveiled at a scientific meeting in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo of a pterosaur, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs, and Sinornithosaurus millenii, nicknamed "Dave the Fuzzy Raptor".

Tourism[edit]

Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace.

The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as well-known as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.

In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo site found in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, is part of a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes sites in Ji'an, Jilin.

Benxi offers a boat ride though a large stalactite filled cave and underground river.

Anshan hosts the Anshan Jade Buddha, the largest Buddha statue made of jade in the world.

Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty.

The port city of Dalian (a former Russian and Japanese port city), located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.

Dandong, on the border with North Korea, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of SinÅ­iju.

Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under various other national agencies:

Under the provincial government:

Paleontology[edit]

Liaoning contains one of the foremost paleontological sites in the world since the discovery of Sinosauropteryx, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation. Since the 1990s dozens of groundbreaking finds have been discovered there, including the earliest flower, placental mammal, and marsupial, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position. These have added further evidence that birds and dinosaurs may be directly related.

Sports[edit]

Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "Liaoning Travel Guide: Map, History, Sightseeing, Ethnic Minority, Climate". Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  4. ^ 《漢典》 [Hàn DiÇŽn, Zdic.net]. 「遼」. HiChina Zhicheng Technology Ltd., 2013. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese) & (English)
  5. ^ a b Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites 2nd ed., p. 218. McFarland & Co. (Jefferson), 2006. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
  6. ^ See, inter alia, Mandarin–English Talking Dictionary. 「宁」. YellowBridge, 2013. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese) & (English)
  7. ^ Sakatani, Yoshiro & al. Manchuria, a Survey of its Economic Development, p. 301. Garland Pub., 1932.
  8. ^ è’‹æ³¢ [Jiang Bo], ed. 〈中国各省及自治区名称历史由来和变化〉 ["Origins of and changes to the names of China's provinces and autonomous regions"] on 《千龙新闻网》 [Qiānlóng XÄ«nwén WÇŽng, Qinlong News Online], reprinted in the 《人民网》 [Rénmín WÇŽng, The People's Daily Online]. 7 Apr 2004. Accessed 20 Jan 2014. (Chinese)
  9. ^ Boland-Crewe, Tara & al. The Territories of the People's Republic of China, p. 156. Europa Pub. Ltd. (London), 2002. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
  10. ^ History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
  11. ^ 先秦辽阳地区部族问题初探
  12. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 38–40. ISBN 0-89065-118-3. 
  13. ^ Xingjing
  14. ^ Dongjing
  15. ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 113
  16. ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 74
  17. ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 74-75
  18. ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 58-61
  19. ^ a b Edmonds (1985), p. 76
  20. ^ Wang Lianjie. "Zhongdong Railway Incident and Great Repercussions Caused by Letters from Chen Duxiu", p. 57, in Asian Culture and History, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan 2010). Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
  21. ^ a b http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/liaoning-province/
  22. ^ China Liaoning Business Guide
  23. ^ RightSite.asia | Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone
  24. ^ RightSite.asia | Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone
  25. ^ RightSite.asia | Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  26. ^ RightSite.asia | Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone
  27. ^ RightSite.asia | Dalian Export Processing Zone
  28. ^ RightSite.asia | Dalian Free Trade Zone
  29. ^ RightSite.asia | Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  30. ^ RightSite.asia | Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone
  31. ^ China Liaoning Business Guide

External links[edit]